Sunday, March 31, 2013

School suspensions: Does racial bias feed the school-to-prison pipeline?

Rocketing school suspensions may feed the school-to-prison pipeline ? and even violate civil rights.

By Stacy Teicher Khadaroo,?Staff writer / March 31, 2013

Oakland High School sophomore Barry Williams answers a question from instructor Tiago Robinson during the Manhood Development Program at Oakland High School on March 12 in Oakland, California. This is the cover story in the Apr. 1 issue of The Christian Science MonitorWeekly.

Ann Hermes/The Christian Science Monitor


Two students set off fire alarms in the same school district. One of them, an African-American kindergartner, is suspended for five days; the other, a white ninth-grader, is suspended for one day.

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?An African-American high-schooler is suspended for a day for using a cellphone and an iPod in class. In the same school, a white student with a similar disciplinary history gets detention for using headphones.

?Two middle-schoolers push each other; the white student receives a three-day, in-school suspension, while the native American student is arrested and suspended, out of school, for 10 days.

Civil rights groups have been saying for years that school discipline is not meted out fairly, citing examples like these reported last year from around the country by the US Department of Education.

High rates of suspensions and expulsions for certain groups ? particularly African-Americans, Hispanics, and those with disabilities ? are evident in data gathered nationally by the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR).

Data from 72,000 American public schools in the 2009-10 school year, for example, show that while African-Americans make up 18 percent of the students in this large sample, they account for 46 percent of students suspended more than once, 39 percent of students expelled, and 36 percent of students arrested on campus.

White students, by contrast, represent 29 percent of multiple suspensions and 33 percent of expulsions ? but 51 percent of the students.

School leaders have to maintain a safe environment for learning, and about 4 in 10 teachers and administrators surveyed recently by Education Week said out-of-school suspensions and expulsions are an effective way to do that. Some expulsions have even been mandated by law, particularly when a student brings a gun to school.

Yet increasingly, "we're seeing suspensions for things that used to be considered typical adolescent behavior and were dealt with in less harsh ways within the school system," says Jim Eichner, managing director of programs for the Advancement Project, a national civil rights group in Washington.

While opinions differ about whether student behavior has become more disruptive or dangerous, the number of suspensions has grown dramatically in recent decades.

In 1976, nearly 1.8 million students were suspended ? 4 percent of all public-school students; by 2006, the number of students suspended had nearly doubled to 3.3 million, about 7 percent of all students, according to Department of Education data.

In addition to the suspensions, 102,000 students were expelled ? removed from school for the remainder of the year or longer ? in 2006.

Nearly two decades of a "zero tolerance" mentality has contributed dramatically to a spike in exclusionary discipline that involves racial disparities, youth and civil rights advocates say. It has led to what they call a "school-to-prison pipeline," and the implications of this unfair, even draconian, disciplinary system are enormous, they say.

National goals to prepare more students for college and careers can't be met if so many students continue to miss out on school, a growing number of educators and lawmakers add ? and society will pay down the road for more jobless and incarcerated young people.


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Slurs against Latinos, gays complicate GOP?s mission to broaden its tent (Washington Post)

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Syracuse on to Final Four, beats Marquette 55-39

Syracuse forward James Southerland (43) lands on Marquette guard Junior Cadougan (5) as Syracuse center Baye Keita (12) looks for the rebound during the second half of the East Regional final in the NCAA men's college basketball tournament, Saturday, March 30, 2013, in Washington. (AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

Syracuse forward James Southerland (43) lands on Marquette guard Junior Cadougan (5) as Syracuse center Baye Keita (12) looks for the rebound during the second half of the East Regional final in the NCAA men's college basketball tournament, Saturday, March 30, 2013, in Washington. (AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

Syracuse forward C.J. Fair (5) falls on Marquette guard Junior Cadougan (5) during the first half of the East Regional final in the NCAA men's college basketball tournament, Saturday, March 30, 2013, in Washington. (AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

Syracuse forward C.J. Fair (5) cuts down the net following their 55-39 win over Marquette in the East Regional final in the NCAA men's college basketball tournament, Saturday, March 30, 2013, in Washington. (AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

Marquette forward Steve Taylor Jr., (25) and Syracuse guard Michael Carter-Williams (1) reach for a loose ball during the first half of the East Regional final in the NCAA men's college basketball tournament, Saturday, March 30, 2013, in Washington. (AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais)

Syracuse guard Brandon Triche (20) heads towards the basket as Marquette guard Vander Blue (13) watches during the first half of the East Regional final in the NCAA men's college basketball tournament, Saturday, March 30, 2013, in Washington. (AP Photo/Alex Brandon)

(AP) ? Jim Boeheim calls this year's Syracuse team his best defensive group ever. Hard to argue, based on the suffocating performances that put the Orange in the Final Four.

Using its trapping, shot-challenging 2-3 zone to perfect effect for 40 minutes, No. 4-seeded Syracuse shut down No. 3 Marquette 55-39 in the East Regional final Saturday to earn Boeheim his first trip to the national semis since a freshman named Carmelo Anthony helped win the 2003 NCAA title.

"It's a great thing," Boeheim joked afterward. "We go once every 10 years."

Fittingly, a matchup between schools from the soon-to-break-apart, rough-and-tumble Big East became quite a struggle on the offensive end. Syracuse (30-9) was led by senior forward James Southerland's 16 points. Michael Carter-Williams, a 6-foot-6 guard who is out front in the zone, was named the regional's top player after having 12 points, eight rebounds and six assists Saturday.

Marquette (26-9) hadn't scored fewer than 47 points all season ? and, indeed, put up 74 in a victory over Syracuse on Feb. 25. But this time, Marquette kept turning the ball over, seeing its shots blocked or just plain missing.

"They beat us from start to finish. We collectively tried everything we knew to try," Marquette coach Buzz Williams said. "It is the zone, and it is the players in the zone."

Much like what happened Thursday in the regional semifinals, when Syracuse knocked off top-seeded Indiana by limiting it to a season-low output, too.

"I don't think we've played as good defensively as these last two games," senior guard Brandon Triche said. "We held some good teams down."

All told, Marquette made only 12 of 53 shots ? 23 percent ? and was 3 for 24 on 3-pointers. Vander Blue, who carried Marquette to the round of eight, was held to 14 points on 3-for-15 shooting. The Golden Eagles' 39 points were a record low for a team in an NCAA tournament regional final since the shot clock was introduced in 1986.

"They cover ground really good. You've got to get the ball in the middle, you've got to play inside out, you've got to get to the free throw line and wear them down with the 3-pointer when you can," Blue said. "They're really good at what they do in that zone."

In the national semifinals at Atlanta next week, Syracuse will face the winner of Sunday's South Regional final between Florida and Michigan.

Last season, Syracuse fell a victory short of the Final Four, losing to Ohio State in the round of eight.

"We wanted to get over the hump," Southerland said. "That's what I told the guys: We've still got two more to go."

The Big East is transforming radically before next season. Syracuse is heading to the Atlantic Coast Conference, while Marquette is one of seven basketball-centric schools departing the conference to form a new league that is taking the Big East name with it.

But talk about a last hurrah.

Not only is Syracuse on its way to the Final Four, but the league also could have a second representative because Louisville is in the Midwest Regional final Sunday against Duke.

In this very same building, exactly three weeks ago, Syracuse wrapped up its final Big East regular-season schedule with a bad-as-can-be performance in a lopsided loss to Georgetown, scoring 39 points ? the Orange's tiniest total in a half-century.

Thanking fans after Saturday's victory, Boeheim said: "I'm sure some of you were here, three weeks ago today, when it didn't turn out so good."

That was Syracuse's fourth loss in a span of five games, a stumbling way to head into tournament play. Since then, though, Boeheim's team has won seven of eight games.

"When you bounce back like that, that says a lot about your kids, your team and your character," Boeheim said. "This is a heck of a bounce back."

And the secret to success? Defense, naturally.

"We got the right personnel for each key position," C.J. Fair said. "We got big long guards, we got big long forwards that can cover ground and our centers do a good job holding down the inside."

Syracuse really needed only one run on offense in the second half, making five shots in a row during a spurt that gave it a 41-28 lead with 9? minutes left.

With President Barack Obama ? a basketball enthusiast who picked Indiana to win the title ? and NFL Rookie of the Year Robert Griffin III of the Washington Redskins sitting in the crowd, Syracuse harassed Marquette into missing 14 of its first 15 tries from beyond the 3-point arc.

Marquette started 1 for 10 overall on field-goal tries, with Blue's 3-pointer about 1? minutes in the only make. He celebrated as though it came at the end of the game, not the outset, punching the air and tapping defender Triche on the back while heading to the other end of the court.

After Blue's 3, Marquette missed its next seven shots.

Davante Gardner ended that drought by scoring inside. Still, four of Marquette's next five possessions ended with turnovers: Gardner couldn't handle a teammate's pass, and the ball bounced off his face; Blue was called for traveling; Fair drew a charge from Blue; Junior Cadougan lost control of his dribble on a wild foray into the lane with the shot clock expiring.

That was part of a stretch ? disappointing for Marquette, delightful for Syracuse ? in which the Golden Eagles went nearly 6? minutes without a single field-goal attempt. Forget about putting the basketball through the net; Syracuse was so smothering, Marquette did not even manage to shoot.

That helped Syracuse build a 19-7 lead.

Enter Gardner, a 290-pound reserve forward.

He scored a career-high 26 points in Marquette's February victory over Syracuse, and he went right to work Saturday.

A 7-minute gap between baskets for Marquette was snapped by Gardner, who grabbed the rebound of his own missed free throw and sank a jumper, beginning a bunch of highlights for him.

Another jumper was followed by a defensive rebound, then an assist on Chris Otule's bucket. Gardner high-stepped back down the court, yelling and punching a fist, before chest-bumping Otule.

It was part of a run in which Marquette cut its deficit to 21-18 on yet another jumper in the lane by Gardner.

The thing is, the Golden Eagles can play defense, too ? what Big East team can't? ? and the teams combined for four turnovers, two blocks and 3-for-16 shooting in the early minutes. For the first half, Marquette shot 27 percent ? take away Gardner's 4 for 5, and his teammates were under 15 percent ? while Syracuse was at 36 percent.

Indeed, as Gardner almost single-handedly got his team back in the game with half of Marquette's initial 18 points, Syracuse went through an 0-for-6 blip.

But Southerland hit a 3, off a pass and screen by Carter-Williams, to put the Orange ahead 24-18 at halftime.

After helping cut down the net to celebrate Saturday, Southerland was asked whether he thought this sort of thing was possible when his team was leaving the same arena on March 9 after losing meekly to Georgetown.

"We just did a good job of recovering from that," Southerland explained, "and not sulking."


Follow Howard Fendrich on Twitter at

Associated Press


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Definition of Online Business | Jugglingart.Org

Definition of online business is diverse by many people. However, definitions of online business looks different context, actually refers to the same essence. The definition of an online business is all forms of business activities that are executed using the internet, which aims to generate income.

From the definition of an online business can be concluded that in principle an online business is not much different from the business runs offline. There is similarities between the online business and offline businesses, including the sale and purchase transactions, both goods and services, and the goals to be achieved, which earn revenue (income). What distinguishes is the media used. Online business is run through the internet, while offline businesses run based on the stores, direct selling door to door, or other forms of marketing.

Online business becomes the choice of many people for earn some money. This is because business in the virtual world does have many advantages. Advantages of online businesses are as follows:

1. Large number of internet users around the world. Business using the internet could reach out many people who may become the customers. Target market of online business is also not limited to just the people who live close to the business owner. Online business can even reach customers from all over the world.

2. It does not require an office building as a place to display or store products for sale. Online business can be run from anywhere as long as there is an internet connection.

3. Full time work hour. Online business work for 24 hours a day, and 7 days a week, even when the owners are sleeping or enjoying holiday. This is because a website or blog can be visited at any time, by anyone.

4. Small business capital. The capital for this online business is small, and even maybe no need capital at all. This is because online business does not require a building as an office or store, nor do they need to hire employees. Fee promotion on the internet is also relatively inexpensive.

5. Online business does not have to run full time. People can manage online business as a side job, without interrupting the main job as an office worker for example.

6. Online businesses do not have to have their own product or service to sell. He can market other people's products and earn income from commissions. This business system is known as affiliate marketing.

7. Unlimited products. Anything can be sold via the Internet.

Online business does have many advantages and can be run by anyone in anywhere. However, not all people who run this online business succeed, many have failed. Their failure because they did not done the proper way, less persistent in the business, less incentive promotions, or products sold less interesting or less valuable benefit for most people.

Where do we learn about Online Business?

To be able to understand the online business world, you can learn from a variety of sources, either from the internet, books, people who have proven successful in online business, e-books, magazines, and so on. In addition, you can follow online business seminar near your place. Provision of adequate knowledge, true understanding, and right ways of doing business, can lead you to become a successful online business, and you can achieve unlimited earnings.

Understanding the definition of a new online business turned out to be the first step. There is still so much effort you have to do to really understand about online business. However, at least the definition of online business can give you some idea, if you previously do not have an idea about an online business. Departing from an understanding of the definition of an online business, you can unleash your potential business skill and get the success from there.


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Member of SEAL Team 6 killed, another SEAL injured in parachute accident

By Jim MIklaszweski and Courtney Kube, NBC News

A ?Navy SEAL from the elite SEAL TEAM 6 was killed and another SEAL injured Thursday night during a parachute training accident in Marana, Arizona, the military said. Details of the accident are not immediately available.

One SEAL was pronounced dead on arrival at the University of Arizona Hospital. The second remains hospitalized in stable condition.

Members of SEAL TEAM 6 carried out the raid that killed Osama Bin Laden. All SEAL teams receive extensive parachute training, which is often required for hostage rescue or anti-terrorist operations.

The names of the two SEALS involved in the fatal training mishap have not been released pending notification of next of kin.


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Saturday, March 30, 2013

Russia warns against military activity near North Korea

MOSCOW (Reuters) - Russia said on Friday that heightened military activity near North Korea was slipping into a "vicious cycle" that could get out of control, implicitly criticizing U.S. bomber flights that followed threats from Pyongyang.

Foreign Ministry Sergei Lavrov suggested that North Korea should also cool down, calling on "all sides not to flex their military muscle" and avoid the danger of a belligerent response.

"We are concerned that alongside the adequate, collective reaction of the U.N. Security Council, unilateral action is being taken around North Korea that is increasing military activity," Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said.

"The situation could simply get out of control, it is slipping toward the spiral of a vicious cycle," he said when asked about tensions on the Korean Peninsula at a joint news conference after talks with his Ukrainian counterpart.

North Korea put its missile units on standby to attack U.S. military bases in South Korea and the Pacific, after the United States flew two nuclear-capable stealth bombers over the Korean peninsula following a barrage of threats from the North.

Russia supported new U.N. Security Council sanctions against its neighbor and former Soviet-era client state North Korea in early March, but Moscow has criticized actions taken outside the council, including U.S. and South Korean military drills.

(Reporting by Gabriela Baczynska; Writing by Steve Gutterman; Editing by Alexei Anishchuk and Alistair Lyon)


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Friday, March 29, 2013

2013 XXL Freshman Issue Explained: Why Logic? Where's Chief Keef?

'The goal we try to make with Freshman is to show that we support new talent,' editor in chief tells MTV News of new cover.
By Rob Markman

Chief Keef
Photo: Johnny Nunez/ WireImage


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Lebanon: Uncertain Future of Civil War Party Headquarters | Al ...

Three political parties allied under the banner of the right-wing Lebanese Front were instrumental in igniting the country?s long civil war. Today, in the twilight of their glory, their historic headquarters are under threat of fading into obscurity.

The house where some of the most important decisions were made about the fate of Lebanon ? the headquarters of the Lebanese National Bloc (LNB), led by the prominent Edde family ? is facing near imminent destruction.

The owner of the house, located in the Beirut neighborhood of Gemmayzeh, has filed a lawsuit for the return of her property from the current occupant ? the LNB, represented by it current president, Carlos Edde.

Edde?s lawyer countered that the owner is in her eighties and the real reason for reclaiming the home is to destroy it and sell it to a real estate developer. Nevertheless, the court decided in favor of the owner, asking her to pay close to a quarter of a million dollars to the renter as compensation. The party considered the offer too low and lodged an appeal.

The party went through this process back in 1976, when one of their regional offices in Byblos was reclaimed by the owner.

Chamoun even sought to have it listed as a heritage site eight years ago, ?closing the door before any successors, who may want to sell it,? he said.Despite the growth of the party, which was founded in 1943, the Eddes never owned their offices. Bloc members were always moving from office to office throughout the years, being pursued by landlords who sought to reappropriate their property.

Liberals Stand Firm

The story of former president Camille Chamoun?s National Liberal Party is somewhat different. This party, which later became one of the key forces in igniting the civil war, was founded in 1958 in their Sodeco area headquarters in Beirut.

At the beginning of the civil war, the party moved its offices to the Achrafieh district where they occupied several floors in the SNA building.

Their powerful Lebanese Forces allies eventually defeated the Liberals and evicted them from the SNA building, forcing the remaining leadership to return to their old headquarters in Sodeco.

Current head Dory Chamoun admits that he was forced to sell much of the party?s property in the face of repeated financial crises. Chamoun even sought to have it listed as a heritage site eight years ago, ?closing the door before any successors, who may want to sell it,? he said.

Phalange House for Sale

Perhaps the most notorious of all party headquarters is the Phalange house in Saifi on the edge of Beirut?s newly developed city center. The fall of this building during the civil war was tantamount to the defeat of Lebanon?s Christians.

The building hosted successive generations of the Gemayel family who have controlled the Phalange Party since its its foundation. Under the French Mandate, the building served as headquarters for France?s Mediterranean fleet.

Its strategic location made it repeated prey to real estate developers, particularly from Solidere, which was in charge of rebuilding downtown Beirut after the civil war. At the time, party head George Saade threatened to resign from his government position in order to save it.

Years later, some party members proposed the idea of taking down the old structure and building a much larger party headquarters in its place. But such ideas often angered its current leader, Amin Gemayel, who viewed the Saifi house as a symbol of the Phalanges.

Today, there is talk among party members of building a new headquarters that would make better use of the space around the current building. There are also rumors ? confirmed by some members of the former party leadership ? of negotiations to sell the building for $20 million. This is on the condition that the party gets a large apartment in the new development.

This article is an edited translation from the Arabic Edition.


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Exercise helps ease arthritis pain and stiffness | Leisure Fitness ...

Exercise helps ease arthritis pain and stiffness
Article, Recommended by Jessica Loeser, Wellness Outreach Team

As you consider starting an arthritis exercise program, understand what?s within your limits and what level of exercise is likely to give you results.

Exercise is crucial for people with arthritis. It increases strength and flexibility, reduces joint pain, and helps combat fatigue. Of course, when stiff and painful joints are already bogging you down, the thought of walking around the block or swimming a few laps might seem overwhelming.

But you don?t need to run a marathon or swim as fast as an Olympic competitor to help reduce the symptoms of your arthritis. Even moderate exercise can ease your pain and help you maintain a healthy weight. When arthritis threatens to immobilize you, exercise keeps you moving. Not convinced? Read on.

Exercise can help you improve your health and fitness without hurting your joints. Along with your current treatment program, exercise can:
-Strengthen the muscles around your joints
-Help you maintain bone strength
-Give you more strength and energy to get through the day
-Make it easier to get a good night?s sleep
-Help you control your weight
-Make you feel better about yourself and improve your sense of well-being

Though you might think exercise will aggravate your joint pain and stiffness, that?s not the case. Lack of exercise actually can make your joints even more painful and stiff. That?s because keeping your muscles and surrounding tissue strong is crucial to maintaining support for your bones. Not exercising weakens those supporting muscles, creating more stress on your joints.

Talk to your doctor about how exercise can fit into your current treatment plan. What types of exercises are best for you depends on your type of arthritis and which joints are involved. Your doctor or a physical therapist can work with you to find the best exercise plan to give you the most benefit with the least aggravation of your joint pain.

Your doctor or physical therapist can recommend exercises that are best for you, which might include range-of-motion exercises, strengthening exercises, aerobic exercise and other activities.

Range-of-motion exercises
These exercises relieve stiffness and increase your ability to move your joints through their full range of motion. Range-of-motion exercises involve moving your joints through their normal range of movement, such as raising your arms over your head or rolling your shoulders forward and backward. These exercises can be done daily or at least every other day.

Strengthening exercises
These exercises help you build strong muscles that help support and protect your joints. Weight training is an example of a strengthening exercise that can help you maintain your current muscle strength or increase it. Do your strengthening exercises every other day ? but take an extra day off if your joints are painful or if you notice any swelling.

Aerobic exercise
Aerobic or endurance exercises help with your overall fitness. They can improve your cardiovascular health, help you control your weight and give you more stamina. That way you?ll have more energy to get through your day. Examples of low-impact aerobic exercises that are easier on your joints include walking, riding a bike and swimming. Try to work your way up to 20 to 30 minutes of aerobic exercise three times a week. You can split up that time into 10-minute blocks if that?s easier on your joints.

Other activities
Any movement, no matter how small, can help. If a particular workout or activity appeals to you, don?t hesitate to ask your doctor whether it?s right for you. Your doctor might give you the OK to try gentle forms of yoga and tai chi. Tai chi may improve balance and help prevent falls. Be sure to tell your instructor about your condition and avoid positions or movements that can cause pain.

Start slowly to ease your joints into exercise if you haven?t been active for a while. If you push yourself too hard, you can overwork your muscles. This can worsen your joint pain.

Apply heat. Heat can relax your joints and muscles and relieve any pain you have before you begin. Heat treatments ? warm towels, hot packs or a shower ? should be warm, not painfully hot, and should be applied for about 20 minutes.

Move gently. Move your joints gently at first to warm up. You might begin with range-of-motion exercises for five to 10 minutes before you move on to strengthening or aerobic exercises.

Go slowly. Exercise with slow and easy movements. If you start noticing pain, take a break. Sharp pain and pain that is stronger than your usual joint pain might indicate something is wrong. Slow down if you notice inflammation or redness in your joints.

Ice afterward. Apply ice to your joints as needed after activity, especially after activity that causes any joint swelling.
Trust your instincts and don?t exert more energy than you think your joints can handle. Take it easy and slowly work your exercise length and intensity up as you progress.

You might notice some pain after you exercise if you haven?t been active for a while. In general, if your pain lasts longer than two hours after you exercise, you were probably exercising too strenuously. Talk to your doctor about what pain is normal and what pain is a sign of something more serious.

If you have rheumatoid arthritis, ask your doctor if you should exercise during general or local flares. One option is to work through your joint flares by doing only range-of-motion exercises, just to keep your body moving.

Check with your doctor about exercise programs in your area for people with arthritis. Hospitals and clinics sometimes offer special programs, as do local health clubs.

The Arthritis Foundation conducts exercise programs for people with arthritis in many parts of the United States. Programs include exercise classes ? in water and on land ? and walking groups. Contact your local branch for more information.


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Thursday, March 28, 2013

Justin Timberlake Tells Fans He's 'Speechless' About First Week Sales

'Shocked ... I just hope this album makes your summer,' he tweets.
By Gil Kaufman

Justin Timberlake
Photo: Jason Kempin/Getty Images


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Engineers enable 'bulk' silicon to emit visible light for the first time

Mar. 27, 2013 ? Electronic computing speeds are brushing up against limits imposed by the laws of physics. Photonic computing, where photons replace comparatively slow electrons in representing information, could surpass those limitations, but the components of such computers require semiconductors that can emit light.

Now, research from the University of Pennsylvania has enabled "bulk" silicon to emit broad-spectrum, visible light for the first time, opening the possibility of using the element in devices that have both electronic and photonic components.

The research was conducted by associate professor Ritesh Agarwal, postdoctoral fellow Chang-Hee Cho and graduate students Carlos O. Aspetti and Joohee Park, all of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering in Penn's School of Engineering and Applied Science.

Their work was published in Nature Photonics.

Certain semiconductors, when imparted with energy, in turn emit light; they directly produce photons, instead of producing heat. This phenomenon is commonplace and used in light-emitting diodes, or LEDs, which are ubiquitous in traffic signals, new types of light bulbs, computer displays and other electronic and optoelectronic devices. Getting the desired photonic properties often means finding the right semiconducting material. Agarwal's group produced the first ever all-optical switch out of cadmium sulfide nanowires, for example.

Semiconducting materials -- especially silicon -- form the backbone of modern electronics and computing, but, unfortunately, silicon is an especially poor emitter of light. It belongs to a group of semiconducting materials, which turns added energy into heat. This makes integrating electronic and photonic circuits a challenge; materials with desirable photonic properties, such as cadmium sulfide, tend to have poor electrical properties and vice versa and are not compatible with silicon-based electronic devices.

"The problem is that electronic devices are made of silicon and photonic devices are typically not," Agarwal said. "Silicon doesn't emit light and the materials that do aren't necessarily the best materials for making electronic devices."

With silicon entrenched as the material of choice for the electronics industry, augmenting its optical properties so it could be integrated into photonic circuitry would make consumer-level applications of the technology more feasible.

"People have tried to solve this problem by doping silicon with other materials, but the light emission is then in the very long wavelength range, so it's not visible and not very efficient and can degrade its electronic properties," Agarwal said. "Another approach is to make silicon devices that are very small, five nanometers in diameter or less. At that size you have quantum confinement effects, which allows the device to emit light, but making electrical connections at that scale isn't currently feasible, and the electrical conductivity would be very low."

To get elemental, "bulk" silicon to emit light, Agarwal's team drew upon previous research they had conducted on plasmonic cavities. In that earlier work, the researchers wrapped a cadmium sulfide nanowire first in a layer of silicon dioxide, essentially glass, and then in a layer of silver. The silver coating supports what are known as surface plasmons, waves that are a combination of oscillating metal electrons and of light. These surface plasmons are highly confined to the surface where the silicon dioxide and silver layers meet. For certain nanowire sizes, the silver coating creates pockets of resonance and hence highly confined electromagnetic fields -- in other words, light -- within the nanostructure.

Normally, after excitation the semiconductor must first "cool down," releasing energy as heat, before "jumping" back to the ground state and finally releasing the remaining energy as light. The Penn team's semiconductor nanowires coupled with plasmonic nanocavities, however, can jump directly from a high-energy excited state to the ground state, all but eliminating the heat-releasing cool-down period. This ultra-fast emission time opens the possibility of producing light from semiconductors such as silicon that might otherwise only produce heat.

"If we can make the carriers recombine immediately," Agarwal said, "then we can produce light in silicon."

In their latest work, the group wrapped pure silicon nanowires in a similar fashion, first with a coating of glass and then one of silver. In this case, however, the silver did not wrap completely around the wire as the researchers first mounted the glass-coated silicon on a sperate pane of glass. Tucking under the curve of the wire but unable to go between it and the glass substrate, the silver coating took on the shape of the greek letter omega -- ? -- while still acting as a plasmonic cavity.

Critically, the transparent bottom of the omega allowed the researchers to impart energy to the semiconductor with a laser and then examine the light silicon emitted.

Even though the silicon nanowire is excited at a single energy level, which corresponds to the wavelength of the blue laser, it produces white light that spans the visible spectrum. This translates into a broad bandwidth for possible operation in a photonic or optoelectronic device. In the future, it should also be possible to excite these silicon nanowires electrically.

"If you can make the silicon emit light itself, you don't have to have an external light source on the chip," Agarwal said. "We could excite the silicon electrically and get the same effect, and we can make it work with wires from 20 to 100 nanometers in diameter, so it's very compatible in terms of length scale with current electronics."

The research was supported by the U.S. Army Research Office and the National Institutes of Health.

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The above story is reprinted from materials provided by University of Pennsylvania.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.

Journal Reference:

  1. Chang-Hee Cho, Carlos O. Aspetti, Joohee Park, Ritesh Agarwal. Silicon coupled with plasmon nanocavities generates bright visible hot luminescence. Nature Photonics, 2013; 7 (4): 285 DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2013.25

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited instead.

Disclaimer: Views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily or its staff.


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Where are all the shoppers? Curfew shows what base relocation could mean to Okinawa

The Futenma Marine base on Okinawa may finally be relocated to a less densely populated part of the island. But its removal could be a blow to the local economy.

By Gavin Blair,?Correspondent / March 27, 2013

A military transport plane takes off from Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in Ginowan, Okinawa, Japan, Dec. 2009.

Shizuo Kambayashi/AP/File


A bustling shopping district outside one of the biggest and most controversial US military bases on Okinawa has become a ghost town.

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An entire strip of shops, bars, and restaurants in Ginowan City, has gone out of business, signs with prices in dollars still hanging in the windows. Only a barbershop is open. There, the staff chat, lounging in salon chairs once full of customers.

US military bases nearby used to house the majority of its clientele, but following increased tensions with locals, the military personnel began to follow strict curfews, dealing a significant blow to local businesses along the way.

And last week,?after years of back and forth between Tokyo and Washington, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe moved to secure the fate of?the Futenma Marine base in Okinawa, which may finally be relocated to a less densely populated part of the island. What appears to be victory for the Japanese ? who petitioned for its removal on the grounds that it was too loud, dangerous, and caused problems for residents ? could be a further blow to the local economy here.

Since October, American military personnel stationed across Japan have been subject to curfews following the rape and robbery of an Okinawan woman by two US Navy sailors. The men were sentenced in January to nine and 10 years in Japanese prison for their crimes, but many Japanese were enraged by what many saw as another in a long list of attacks on local people.

?The restrictions on the troops going off-base since the incident last year has hit nearly every business around here. Lots of places have closed down,? says taxi driver Tomohide Kiyuna. ?The young ones used to get dressed up smart and take taxis into the city at the weekends.?

?I still carry dollars so I can give them change when they pay in US currency,? he adds, pulling a wad of greenbacks from his top pocket. ?But I don't need them so much these days.?

Absence of US dollars

Okinawa hosts about three-quarters of the US military installations and half the personnel stationed in Japan, despite accounting for only 1 percent of the country's land mass. Nearly a fifth of the island is occupied by bases.

The absence of US dollars in the shops in Ginowan may be a precursor of times to come around the island. ?As plans move ahead to relocate more troops and bases to other parts of Okinawa and out of Japan, including 4,000 Marines from Okinawa to Guam, the owners of businesses that have?popped?up around them are concerned.

On March 22, Japan's Defense Ministry submitted a plan to the Okinawan prefectural authorities to build a new facility on the northeast coast of the island, to replace the US Marine Corps Air Station Futenma base that sits in the middle of Ginowan City.

The latest proposal follows years of often-strained back-and-forth between Tokyo and Washington over the Futenma base, and is blamed for costing former Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama his job. In 2010, he resigned after eight months in office after failing to deliver on an election pledge to relocate the controversial facility.

?My basic policy is that we should not leave the Futenma base as it is for a long time,??Prime Minister Abe told reporters in Tokyo last week after submitting the relocation proposal.??I want to do my best to reduce Okinawan people?s burden.??

Although some locals vehemently oppose the presence of the US military on the island at all, others are conflicted. It has brought undeniable economic benefits to Japan's poorest prefecture, where the average income is less than half of that in Tokyo.

Empty Ferris wheel

A couple of miles from Futenma, the lights of the Ferris wheel at the American Village leisure complex burn bright, but it sits idly, waiting for a smattering of locals to board. ?Some 50 percent of its customers come from the nearby bases, according to Satoshi, who manages the wheel and asked only to be identified by his first name due.

?I really don't know if I want the bases to go or not. There are a lot of incidents with the military guys that don't even make the news. If there were no problems like that, I'd probably be OK with them,? Satoshi adds. ?It would help, too, if we were allowed to go onto the bases the way they can come out, when there aren't curfews. It is Japanese land that the bases are on.?

Masumi Hanashiro, grew up in Ginowan but now manages the Anoten Japanese restaurant six miles away in Naha City, the capital of Okinawa.?

?It's true that the bases are noisy and kind of dangerous, and there have been some terrible incidents. But even with all that, I want them to stay here,? says Mr. Hanashiro. ?My father works on Futenma maintaining the water system. The jobs on the bases pay well, and a lot of people apply for them. I tried to get one myself.?

?There's nothing to replace it, especially with the economy the way it is at the moment,? says Hanashiro. ?A lot of the people who protest against the bases are older and retired; the young people need the work.?


?This economic argument is disputed by people like veteran antibase campaigner Yoshikazu Makishi.

?When Okinawa was handed back to Japan by America in 1972, around 20 percent of the island's economy depended on the bases, now the figure is 5 percent. And there used to be 25,000 Okinawans working on the bases, now there's only 9,000; those people found other work to do,? says Mr. Makishi.

?If that land was freed up, other businesses would come and use it,? he says.

One plan is to turn the island into an entertainment hub. Hiroshi Osaki, the CEO of Yoshimoto Kogyo, Japan's biggest talent agency and management company, is the man with the vision to transform Okinawa, by transforming the military facilities into in a performing arts school.?

?We would like to see young creative people from all over Asia come here and help revitalize the island by building a new industry,? says Mr. Osaki. ?But it will depend on whether the plans go ahead to relocate the base. In the end, that's something that the local people have to decide on.?


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Wednesday, March 27, 2013

Keen On? So What's The Big Deal About Big Data? [TCTV]

Screen Shot 2013-03-25 at 2.33.06 PMThis new book, Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work and Think?- written by Oxford University professor Viktor Mayer-Schonberger and The Economist journalist Ken Cukier - is the definitive guide to a new age which, both authors promise, is going to revolutionize the way we live, work and think.


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Tuesday, March 26, 2013

Prince Harry to visit US, skipping Vegas this time

LONDON (AP) ? Britain's Prince Harry is returning to the United States ? but this time he's skipping Las Vegas.

The 28-year-old prince will travel to the U.S. east coast as well as Denver and Colorado Springs, Colorado, to support veterans' charities and get in a bit of polo.

Harry, a longtime supporter of charities that rehabilitate war veterans, will attend several events at the 2013 Warrior Games, a competition between British and American veteran athletes.

"Prince Harry wants to highlight once again the extraordinary commitment and sacrifice of our injured servicemen and women," said Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton, Harry's private secretary.

Harry recently spent 20 weeks in Afghanistan as co-pilot gunner on an Apache attack helicopter.

His May 9-15 visit will include trips to Arlington National Cemetery, Walter Reed National Medical Center and an exhibition on Capitol Hill about land mine clearance, a favorite subject of his late mother, Princess Diana. He will also visit areas in New Jersey hard hit by Hurricane Sandy.

Harry will also play in the Sentebale Polo Cup in Greenwich, Connecticut. Sentebale ? which means "forget-me-not" ? is a charity founded by Harry and Lesotho's Prince Seeiso that helps children struggling with poverty in the tiny southern African country.

On his last U.S. visit, the third-in-line to the British throne stormed into the headlines last year when he was caught frolicking in the nude with a woman after an alleged game of strip billiards in his Las Vegas hotel room.


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Monday, March 25, 2013


IMF draft cuts 2013 U.S. growth forecast: report

MILAN (Reuters) - The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is planning to cut its U.S. growth forecast for this year due to higher taxes and spending cuts, Italian news agency ANSA said, citing a draft of the IMF's next World Economic Outlook report. The U.S. economy, the world's biggest, will expand 1.7 percent this year, down from the 2.0 percent predicted in January, ANSA reported late on Saturday. The next round of IMF forecasts is scheduled to be published in mid-April.

Euro zone bailouts getting harder to agree: policymakers

SAARISELKA, Finland (Reuters) - Euro zone bailouts are getting tougher to agree as opposition within creditor nations grows and indebted states struggle to persuade citizens to back austerity, policymakers said on Sunday. At a meeting in Finnish Lapland this weekend, attendees including Ireland's Europe Minister Lucinda Creighton and host Prime Minister Jyrki Katainen sounded confident that Cyprus would secure a bailout deal to avoid financial collapse.

Switzerland denies banking deal in principle reached with U.S.

ZURICH (Reuters) - The Swiss government on Sunday denied a newspaper report that the country had reached a deal in principle with the United States over undeclared funds hidden by wealthy Americans in Swiss offshore bank accounts. "There is no agreed framework. The negotiations for an industry-wide deal to enable all Swiss banks to draw a line under the matter are ongoing," Swiss government spokesman Mario Tuor said in an emailed statement to Reuters.

Standard Chartered would consider Egypt buy, plans Iraq push

DUBAI (Reuters) - Standard Chartered would consider acquiring a bank in Egypt to ride an expected boom in one of the Middle East's largest economies, the firm's regional head said. The bank also plans to expand operations in Iraq this year. Many European banks are under pressure to cut costs and bolster their capital in the wake of the global financial crisis, but Christos Papadopoulos said such pressures would not deter Standard Chartered from growing in the Middle East.

Blackstone, Icahn set up three-way battle to buy out Dell

NEW YORK (Reuters) - Dell Inc appeared to have received competing offers following a $24.4 billion agreement last month to be taken private by its founder and private equity firm Silver Lake, setting up a tug-of-war for the world's No. 3 PC maker. Blackstone Group LP submitted an indicative and preliminary offer ahead of the expiration of a "go-shop" period on Saturday that allowed Dell to explore other options, a person familiar with the matter said.

Canada's Flaherty sees substantial tax avoidance by the wealthy

VANCOUVER (Reuters) - Some wealthy Canadians are hiding "substantial" amounts of revenue offshore, Finance Minister Jim Flaherty said on Friday, a day after unveiling a new plan to crack down on tax cheats and pay individuals who come forth with information on them. Flaherty's budget on Thursday proposed a series of measures to close tax loopholes and reduce international tax evasion and avoidance, part of a broader effort to boost revenues and eliminate the country's budget deficit by 2015.

Sky's the limit? Southeast Asia budget airlines bet big on growth

SINGAPORE (Reuters) - Lion Air's record aircraft orders underline the ambitious plans the privately held Indonesian group is hatching to emerge as a pan-Asian low cost carrier, throwing a serious challenge to AirAsia Bhd , the region's biggest budget airline. The rivalry intensified on Friday when Lion Air launched its first service in Malaysia, barging onto AirAsia's home turf, but the pace of expansion has raised questions about whether airlines are overextending themselves.

ThyssenKrupp deems Steel Americas bids low, wants talks: paper

RIO DE JANEIRO (Reuters) - German steelmaker ThyssenKrupp was surprised by the low value of bids for its Cia Siderurgica do Atlantico mill in Brazil and is seeking talks with bidders to raise the offer prices, the Agencia Estado news agency reported Saturday. The two main bidders, Brazil's Cia Siderurgica Nacional and the Luxembourg-based Latin American steelmaker Ternium SA , counted on ThyssenKrupp's wanting to sell the money-losing mill quickly to drive down the cost of buying it, Agencia Estado said, citing a source with access to the negotiations.

Deutsche Bank co-CEO asked for two million euro pay cut: paper

FRANKFURT (Reuters) - Deutsche Bank co-Chief Executive Anshu Jain requested a pay cut of almost 2 million euro ($2.60 million) to draw level with the 2012 compensation package of fellow top executive Juergen Fitschen, a German newspaper reported. Jain, who until June last year was head of investment banking at Deutsche, asked the supervisory board at the beginning of this year not to be paid parts of his bonus for 2012, Sunday paper Welt am Sonntag cited sources close to the board as saying.

BlackBerry shares dive on reports of muted U.S. debut for Z10

TORONTO (Reuters) - Shares of BlackBerry fell nearly 8 percent on Friday after reports of a flat response to the launch of its new Z10 smartphone in the vitally important U.S. market. The well-reviewed device, whose success is essential if BlackBerry is to reestablish itself as a power in the smartphone industry, finally hit U.S. store shelves early on Friday, nearly two months after being formally unveiled.


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Sony Xperia ZL officially priced in the U.S.

Xperia ZL

The Sony Xperia ZL has been listed for pre-order at Sony's U.S. store for some time, but today brings the first official word on pricing for the North American Sony flagship. According to Sony's store listing page, two models will be offered. The first, C6502, will come with pentaband HSPA+ connectivity, whereas the more expensive C6506 will pack those same radios in addition to LTE on Bands 2, 4, 5 and 17. That should get you up and running on AT&T's LTE, as well as T-Mobile's when it launches -- along with a bunch of Canadian carriers.

Unfortunately neither model will be cheap -- the HSPA+ version will sell for $720, while its LTE-capable sibling will cost a whopping $760. Nevertheless, with no carrier deals in sight, it appears this is the only way you'll be able to get your hands on an Xperia ZL in the U.S.

On the hardware side, the Xperia ZL mirrors its international cousin the Xperia Z. Inside there's a 1.5GHz quad-core Snapdragon S4 Pro CPU, 2GB of RAM and a 1080p display, as well as Sony's new 13-megapixel Exmor RS camera. However the ZL trades water resistance and an all-glass design for a smaller footprint, a more ergonomic fit and a physical camera button. For more on the Euro-centric Xperia Z, be sure to check out our full review.

Source: Sony Store


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How to Go Out and Talk About Your Book | Writing and Publishing ...

It?s common for me to get questions from authors. And it?s interesting to see how the nature of the questions have changed over the years. It used to be that hopeful authors asked, ?How do I find a publisher?? ?Do I need an agent?? ?What publisher/agent would you recommend?? ?How do you write a query letter??

There was a period when I got a lot of questions related to writing a book proposal, identifying genre, copyright and so forth.

Lately, I seem to be getting questions about marketing. ?How do I prepare a marketing plan?? ?What?s the best way to promote a book?? ?How do I promote my ebook?? And today, I got a question from a Toastmaster about how to start going out and speaking about your book.

Of course, I told this author about my latest freebie??50 Ways To Sell Books Through Your Personality.?

And I told him about my latest book?Talk Up Your Book, How to Sell Books Through Public Speaking, Interviews, Signings, Festivals, Conferences and More. This book is available at and most other online and downtown bookstores. It is in print, on Kindle and audio.

Talk Up Your Book offers up step-by-step assistance for anyone who is eager to start selling books by personally addressing his/her audience as well as those who are terrified of public speaking or anything that resembles it. The book covers stage fright, noodle knees and the whole lack of confidence scenario for reluctant speakers whether you are the author of a nonfiction book, a novel or a children?s book. And it is a no-nonsense guide for those who know that public speaking is an excellent mode of book promotion.

My best advice for a new author who wants to get out in public and promote his or her book, but who isn?t accustomed to it or who is reluctant is this:

1: Begin stepping out into the limelight. Take it slow, if you want. Volunteer to head a committee at work, your club or church so that you get the opportunity to speak before a group. Join a Toastmasters club near you and participate. Join a storytelling or even drama group. Take a speaking course at a local college. Practice, practice, practice.

2: Talk about your book everywhere you go. Come up with a short spiel describing your book and share it often with people you meet at work, socially and in passing. Listen to their questions?these are the things your future audiences will want to know about your book. Make note to weave this information into your speeches when you start writing them.

3: Create a presentation that you would be comfortable presenting to a small group. It should involve an aspect of your book that you know well, are excited about and can convey to others fairly effortlessly. Use some of the notes you?ve collected reflecting some of the questions people have asked about your story, the writing of it or the information in your nonfiction book, for example.

4: Go in search of your ideal audience whether it is children during story time at a local library, civic group members during their monthly lunch meeting, your church auxiliary members, history buffs convening at the museum for docent training, a meeting of businessmen or women or a book club, for example. Contact the program chair and set up a date to speak.

Fill in the blanks?how to write a speech, how to prepare for a presentation, how to create rapport with your audience, radio interviews, getting people to attend your signing, ideas for unusual venues, great introductions to your speeches, how to rehearse your speech, tips for talking about your novel and so much more by reading Talk Up Your Book.


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Sunday, March 24, 2013

CDC: 105 US children died this flu season

NEW YORK (AP) ? Health officials say the flu season is winding down, and it has killed 105 children ? about the average toll.

The flu season started earlier than usual and ended up being moderately severe.

Roughly 100 children die in an average flu season. One exception was the swine flu pandemic of 2009-2010, when 348 children died.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported the latest number Friday.

The CDC said 90 percent of the children who died had not been vaccinated. This year's vaccine didn't work very well in older people, but was considered effective in children.

Health officials say children 6 months and older should be vaccinated each year, but usually only about half get a flu shot or nasal spray.



CDC flu:


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Saturday, March 23, 2013

Yandex introduces Twym online payment system for Twitter-based ...

Yandex introduces Twym online payment system for Twitterbased transfers

Russia's Yandex has been in the online payment business for more than a decade now with its Yandex.Money service, but it's branching out into some slightly more uncharted territory with its latest addition. Dubbed Twym, the company's new service will let folks send actual rubles to other Twitter users with nothing more than a tweet like the one above. Before that transfer takes place, though, both the sender and receiver of the money will need to link their Twitter and Yandex.Money accounts, and there are expectedly some limits on the amounts that can be transfered. 100,000 rubles (or roughly $3,300) is the maximum limit allowed by Yandex, but that can be changed by each user. You can also thankfully keep things private via direct message if you'd rather not broadcast your money transfers to all your followers.


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Delaying savings will only make problem worse: ECB's Praet

BRUSSELS (Reuters) - Savings required to bring euro zone budgets under control cannot be put off for long, European Central Bank Executive Board member Peter Praet said in an interview in two Belgian newspapers.

Economists such as Nobel prize-winning Paul Krugman and London School of Economics professor Paul De Grauwe have said austerity measures in southern euro zone countries are simply driving them into a downward spiral of recession and debt.

Praet, in an interview published on Saturday in Dutch-language De Standaard and French-language Le Soir, said one should be careful about thinking this way.

"You can have a little delay. But you will not solve the problem that way. Quite the contrary, a delay will only make your debt mountain bigger. And it needs to stay manageable," Praet said.

Praet told the newspapers that if there were signs of economic recovery soon then necessary reforms and savings could not be put off for a year.

"I hear far too much policymakers saying: wait a little, give me more time. That can affect the credibility of a country. The debts will not miraculously disappear," he said.

He said savings were not a 'dogma' for the European Central Bank. What was important, he said, was the impact of savings measures, which should be combined with structural reforms.

Praet said he expected the euro zone to have contracted in the first quarter of 2013. The recession overall was not deep, although the difference between countries was sharp.

Praet also said he was pre-occupied with two chief concerns.

Consumers were concerned that their income over the long term would fall and were cutting spending, which was making the problem worse.

His second concern was that banks were receiving cheap money, such as from the European Central Bank, but were not passing this on as credit to companies.

"Big multinationals do not draw little of this. They can get financing directly from the market by issuing corporate debt. But for the many small and medium-sized firms this is a problem," he said.

(Reporting By Philip Blenkinsop; editing by James Jukwey)


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Supreme Court to decide on deals to delay cheaper drugs

By Diane Bartz

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The Supreme Court will hear arguments on Monday over whether big drug companies can settle patent litigation with generic rivals by making deals to keep cheaper products off the market.

U.S. and state regulators say the practice costs consumers, insurers and government billions of dollars annually.

The Federal Trade Commission, which has dubbed these arrangements "pay for delay," has fought them in court for more than a decade with mixed success, culminating in the case now before the Supreme Court.

"The continuing stream of monopoly profits is large enough to pay the generic competitors more than they could hope to earn if they entered the market at competitive prices," the FTC said in a brief.

At the same time, the brand-name manufacturer receives greater profits than it could earn in the face of generic competition, the regulatory agency argued.

The Justice Department, the European Union and more than two dozen U.S. state attorneys general view the deals as illegal, but drug companies defend them as a way to avoid potentially lengthy patent litigation.

"In every case that we've been in involved in that resulted in a settlement, it has resulted in years being taken off the patent life," added Paul Bisaro, chief executive of generic drug maker Actavis, Inc. Actavis was formerly Watson Pharmaceuticals.

"It's very unsophisticated to say 'Oh, they get paid a bunch of money to stay off the market,'" said Bisaro.

In the case before the court, Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc, now owned by AbbVie, sued generic drug makers in 2003 to stop cheaper versions of AndroGel, a gel used to treat men with low testosterone.

These payments, as high as $30 million annually, went to rivals Watson, Paddock Laboratories Inc and Par Pharmaceutical Cos, and were intended to help Solvay preserve annual profits estimated at $125 million.

Under the deal, the three would stay off the market until 2015. The patent expires in 2020.

AbbVie was confident that it would win.

"The federal district and appellate courts have both previously ruled that the plaintiff's allegations lacked merit. We are confident that these decisions will be upheld," Adelle Infante, an AbbVie spokeswoman, said in a statement.

The Supreme Court is expected to issue a decision by the end of June.

AbbVie's arrangement is similar to the 40 deals made in the 2012 fiscal year, which ended on September 30. That was up from 28 the previous year despite FTC efforts to stop them. The FTC said the agreements involved 31 different brand name drugs with total U.S. sales of more than $8.3 billion annually.

The FTC sued to stop the AndroGel arrangement, arguing that it was illegal under antitrust law because the companies divided up the market.

The FTC lost at the district court level and lost an appeal as well. But another appellate court has said the deals were illegal, prompting the Supreme Court to step in to resolve the split.

The FTC also sued Cephalon Inc, accusing it in 2008 of blocking a generic version of the anti-sleep drug Provigil. The case has been stayed pending the Supreme Court's decision.

In 2001 the FTC sued Schering-Plough Corp., later bought by Merck and Co Inc, because of payments to rivals to delay generic versions of its potassium supplement, K-Dur 20. The FTC lost that case.

But in a private case that also involved K-Dur, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, in New Jersey, backed the FTC position and found the deals to be illegal.


Opponents of pay-for-delay deals in the United States and Europe are not waiting for a high court decision, though.

Senator Amy Klobuchar, a Democrat from Minnesota and chairwoman of the Senate Judiciary Committee's antitrust panel, and Senator Chuck Grassley, a Republican from Iowa, introduced legislation in February to make the deals illegal.

Previous bills have failed in part because of opposition from the drug industry, both branded and generic.

In Brussels, EU regulators have eight investigations under way involving more than a dozen drugmakers. The European competition regulator says the deals violate antitrust law.

The decision will be made by an eight-member court. Justice Samuel Alito recused himself, without giving a reason.

The case is Federal Trade Commission v. Watson Pharmaceuticals Inc et al, U.S. Supreme Court, No. 12-416.

(Reporting By Diane Bartz; editing by Ros Krasny and Kenneth Barry)


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